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c# Uncategorized

Making Users Re-Enter their Password: ASP.NET Core & IdentityServer4

It’s often good security behaviour to require users to re-enter their password when they want to change some secure property of their account, like generate personal access tokens, or change their Multi-factor Authentication (MFA) settings.

You may have seen the Github ‘sudo’ mode, which asks you to re-enter your password when you try to change something sensitive.

Sudo Mode Dialog
The Github sudo mode prompt.

Most of the time a user’s session is long-lived, so when they want to do something sensitive, it’s best to check they still are who they say.

I’ve been working on the implementation of IdentityServer4 at Enclave for the past week or so, and had this requirement to require password confirmation before users can modify their MFA settings.

I thought I’d write up how I did this for posterity, because it took a little figuring out.

The Layout

In our application, we have two components, both running on ASP.NET Core 3.1

  • The Accounts app that holds all the user data; this is where Identity Server runs; we use ASP.NET Core Identity to do the actual user management.
  • The Portal app that holds the UI. This is a straightforward MVC app right now, no JS or SPA to worry about.

To make changes to a user’s account settings, the Profile Controller in the Portal app makes API calls to the Accounts app.

The Portal calls APIs in the Accounts app

All the API calls to the Accounts app are already secured using the Access Token from when the user logged in; we have an ASP.NET Core Policy in place for our additional API (as per the IdentityServer docs) to protect it.

The Goal

The desired outcome here is that specific sensitive API endpoints within the Accounts app require the calling user to have undergone a second verification, where they must have re-entered their password recently in order to use the API.

What we want to do is:

  • Allow the Portal app to request a ‘step-up’ access token from the Accounts app.
  • Limit the step-up access token to a short lifetime (say 15 minutes), with no refresh tokens.
  • Call a sensitive API on the Accounts App, and have the Accounts App validate the step-up token.

Issuing the Step-Up Token

First up, we need to generate a suitable access token when asked. I’m going to add a new controller, StepUpApiController, in the Accounts app.

This controller is going to have a single endpoint, which requires a regular access token before you can call it.

We’re going to use the provided IdentityServerTools class, that we can inject into our controller, to do the actual token generation.

Without further ado, let’s look at the code for the controller:

[Route("api/stepup")]
[ApiController]
[Authorize(ApiScopePolicy.WriteUser)]
public class StepUpApiController : ControllerBase
{
    private static readonly TimeSpan ValidPeriod = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(15);

    private readonly UserManager<ApplicationUser> _userManager;
    private readonly IdentityServerTools _idTools;

    public StepUpApiController(UserManager<ApplicationUser> userManager,
                               IdentityServerTools idTools)
    {
        _userManager = userManager;
        _idTools = idTools;
    }

    [HttpPost]
    public async Task<StepUpApiResponse> StepUp(StepUpApiModel model)
    {
        var user = await _userManager.GetUserAsync(User);

        // Verify the provided password.
        if (await _userManager.CheckPasswordAsync(user, model.Password))
        {
            var clientId = User.FindFirstValue(JwtClaimTypes.ClientId);

            var claims = new Claim[]
            {
                new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.Subject, User.FindFirstValue(JwtClaimTypes.Subject)),
            };

            // Create a token that:
            //  - Is associated to the User's client.
            //  - Is only valid for our configured period (15 minutes)
            //  - Has a single scope, indicating that the token can only be used for stepping up.
            //  - Has the same subject as the user.
            var token = await _idTools.IssueClientJwtAsync(
                clientId,
                (int)ValidPeriod.TotalSeconds,
                new[] { "account-stepup" },
                additionalClaims: claims);

            return new StepUpApiResponse { Token = token, ValidUntil = DateTime.UtcNow.Add(ValidPeriod) };
        }

        Response.StatusCode = StatusCodes.Status401Unauthorized;

        return null;
    }
}

A couple of important points here:

  • In order to even access this API, the normal access token being passed in the requested must conform to our own WriteUser scope policy, which requires a particular scope be in the access token to get to this API.
  • This generated access token is really basic; it has a single scope, “account-stepup”, and only a single additional claim containing the subject.
  • We associate the step-up token to the same client ID as the normal access token, so only the requesting client can use that token.
  • We explicitly state a relatively short lifetime on the token (15 minutes here).

Sending the Token

This is the easy bit; once you have the token, you can store it somewhere in the client, and send it in a subsequent request.

Before sending the step-up token, you’ll want to check the expiry on it, and if you need a new one, then prompt the user for their credentials and start the process again.

For any request to the sensitive API, we need to include both the normal access token from the user’s session, plus the new step-up token.

I set this up when I create the HttpClient:

private async Task<HttpClient> GetClient(string? stepUpToken = null)
{
    var client = new HttpClient();

    // Set the base address to the URL of our Accounts app.
    client.BaseAddress = _accountUrl;

    // Get the regular user access token in the session and add that as the normal
    // Authorization Bearer token.
    // _contextAccessor is an instance of IHttpContextAccessor.
    var accessToken = await _contextAccessor.HttpContext.GetUserAccessTokenAsync();
    client.DefaultRequestHeaders.Authorization = new AuthenticationHeaderValue("Bearer", accessToken);

    if (stepUpToken is object)
    {
        // We have a step-up token; include it as an additional header (without the Bearer indicator).
        client.DefaultRequestHeaders.Add("X-Authorization-StepUp", stepUpToken);
    }

    return client;
}

That X-Authorization-StepUp header is where we’re going to look when checking for the token in the Accounts app.

Validating the Step-Up Token

To validate a provided step-up token in the Accounts app, I’m going to define a custom ASP.NET Core Policy that requires the API call to provide a step-up token.

If there are terms in here that don’t seem immediately obvious, check out the docs on Policy-based authorization in ASP.NET Core. It’s a complex topic, but the docs do a pretty good job of breaking it down.

Let’s take a look at an API call endpoint that requires step-up:

[ApiController]
[Route("api/user")]
[Authorize(ApiScopePolicy.WriteUser)]
public class UserApiController : Controller
{
    [HttpPost("totp-enable")]
    [Authorize("require-stepup")]
    public async Task<IActionResult> EnableTotp(TotpApiEnableModel model)
    {
        // ... do stuff ...
    }
}

That Authorize attribute I placed on the action method specifies that we want to enforce a require-stepup policy on this action. Authorize attributes are additive, so a request to EnableTotp requires both our normal WriteUser policy and our step-up policy.

Defining our Policy

To define our require-stepup policy, lets jump over to our Startup class; specifically, in ConfigureServices, where we set up Authorization using the AddAuthorization method:

services.AddAuthorization(options =>
{
    // Other policies omitted...

    options.AddPolicy("require-stepup", policy =>
    { 
        policy.AddAuthenticationSchemes("local-api-scheme");
        policy.RequireAuthenticatedUser();
        
        // Add a new requirement to the policy (for step-up).
        policy.AddRequirements(new StepUpRequirement());
    });
});

The ‘local-api-scheme’ is the built-in scheme provided by IdentityServer for protecting local API calls.

That requirement class, StepUpRequirement is just a simple marker class for indicating to the policy that we need step-up. It’s also how we wire up a handler to check that requirement:

public class StepUpRequirement : IAuthorizationRequirement
{
}

Defining our Authorization Handler

We now need an Authorization Handler that lets us check incoming requests meet our new step-up requirement.

So, let’s create one:

public class StepUpAuthorisationHandler : AuthorizationHandler<StepUpRequirement>
{
    private const string StepUpTokenHeader = "X-Authorization-StepUp";

    private readonly IHttpContextAccessor _httpContextAccessor;
    private readonly ITokenValidator _tokenValidator;

    public StepUpAuthorisationHandler(
        IHttpContextAccessor httpContextAccessor,
        ITokenValidator tokenValidator)
    {
        _httpContextAccessor = httpContextAccessor;
        _tokenValidator = tokenValidator;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Called by the framework when we need to check a request.
    /// </summary>
    protected override async Task HandleRequirementAsync(
        AuthorizationHandlerContext context,
        StepUpRequirement requirement)
    {
        // Only interested in authenticated users.
        if (!context.User.IsAuthenticated())
        {
            return;
        }

        var httpContext = _httpContextAccessor.HttpContext;

        // Look for our special request header.
        if (httpContext.Request.Headers.TryGetValue(StepUpTokenHeader, out var stepUpHeader))
        {
            var headerValue = stepUpHeader.FirstOrDefault();

            if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(headerValue))
            {
                // Call our method to check the token.
                var validated = await ValidateStepUp(context.User, headerValue);

                // Token was valid, so succeed.
                // We don't explicitly have to fail, because that is the default.
                if (validated)
                {
                    context.Succeed(requirement);
                }
            }
        }
    }

    private async Task<bool> ValidateStepUp(ClaimsPrincipal user, string header)
    {
        // Use the normal token validator to check the access token is valid, and contains our
        // special expected scope.
        var validated = await _tokenValidator.ValidateAccessTokenAsync(header, "account-stepup");

        if (validated.IsError)
        {
            // Bad token.
            return false;
        }

        // Validate that the step-up token is for the same client as the access token.
        var clientIdClaim = validated.Claims.FirstOrDefault(x => x.Type == JwtClaimTypes.ClientId);

        if (clientIdClaim is null || clientIdClaim.Value != user.FindFirstValue(JwtClaimTypes.ClientId))
        {
            return false;
        }

        // Confirm a subject is supplied.
        var subjectClaim = validated.Claims.FirstOrDefault(x => x.Type == JwtClaimTypes.Subject);

        if (subjectClaim is null)
        {
            return false;
        }

        // Confirm that the subject of the stepup and the current user are the same.
        return subjectClaim.Value == user.FindFirstValue(JwtClaimTypes.Subject);
    }
}

Again, let’s take a look at the important bits of the class:

  • The handler derives from AuthorizationHandler<StepUpRequirement>, indicating to ASP.NET that we are a handler for our custom requirement.
  • We stop early if there is no authenticated user; that’s because the step-up token is only valid for a user who is already logged in.
  • We inject and use IdentityServer’s ITokenValidator interface to let us validate the token using ValidateAccessTokenAsync; we specify the scope we require.
  • We check that the client ID of the step-up token is the same as the regular access token used to authenticate with the API.
  • We check that the subjects match (i.e. this step-up token is for the same user).

The final hurdle is to register our authorization handler in our Startup class:

services.AddSingleton<IAuthorizationHandler, StepUpAuthorisationHandler>();

Wrapping Up

There you go, we’ve now got a secondary access token being issued to indicate step-up has been done, and we’ve got a custom authorization handler to check our new token.

Categories
Uncategorized

Loading Plugins/Extensions at Run Time from NuGet in .NET Core : Part 1 – NuGet

This post is the first in a short series, writing up my efforts creating an plugin/extension system working in .NET Core that:

  • Loads extension packages from NuGet, with all their dependencies (this post).
  • Loads the extensions into my .NET Core Process.
  • Allows the loaded extensions to be unloaded.

Background

As a bit of context, I’m currently building an open-source BDD testing platform that goes beyond Gherkin, AutoStep, which is built entirely in C#, on top of .NET Core 3.1.

In AutoStep, I need to be able to load in extensions that provide additional functionality for AutoStep. For example, extensions might provide:

  • Bindings for some UI platform or library
  • Custom Report Formats
  • Integration with some external Test Management System

In terms of what’s in them, AutoStep extensions are going to consist of things like:

  • .NET DLLs
  • AutoStep Test Files
  • Dependencies on various NuGet packages (Selenium.WebDriver anyone?).

All of the above items fit pretty well within the scope of NuGet packages, and I don’t want to build my own extension packaging, hosting, versioning and so on, so I’m going to say that each extension can be represented by a NuGet package.

AutoStep does not require the .NET Core SDK to build or run any tests, so I can’t just create a csproj, chuck PackageReferences in and be done with it.

I need to bake the idea of extensions into the platform itself.


If you want to jump ahead, you can check out the GitHub repository for AutoStep.Extensions, which provides the NuGet package used to load extensions into our VS Code Language Server and our commmand-line runner.

Loading Extensions from NuGet

Microsoft supplies the NuGet Client SDK, to work with both NuGet packages and source repositories; specifically the NuGet.Protocol and NuGet.Resolver packages.

The documentation on how to actually use the NuGet Client libraries is a bit sparse, so I’m permanently indebted to Martin Bjorkstrom for writing a blog post on it that I used as a pretty detailed guide to get me started.

Loading our extension packages from NuGet involves three phases:

  1. Determine the best version of an extension package to install, given a version range (and normal NuGet rules).
    For example, if the version of the extension requested is 1.4.0, and there is a 1.4.5 version available, we want that one.
  2. Get the list of all NuGet package dependencies (recursively) for each extension.
  3. Download and Extract your packages.

Choosing the Extension Version

This is (relatively) the easy bit. First up, we’ll create some of the context objects we need to get started:

/// <summary>
/// Represents the configuration for a single extension to install.
/// </summary>
public class ExtensionConfiguration
{
    public string Package { get; set; }
    public string Version { get; set; }
    public bool PreRelease { get; set; }
}

public async Task LoadExtensions()
{
    // Define a source provider, with the main NuGet feed, plus my own feed.
    var sourceProvider = new PackageSourceProvider(NullSettings.Instance, new[]
    {
        new PackageSource("https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json"),
        new PackageSource("https://f.feedz.io/autostep/ci/nuget/index.json")
    });

    // Establish the source repository provider; the available providers come from our custom settings.
    var sourceRepositoryProvider = new SourceRepositoryProvider(sourceProvider, Repository.Provider.GetCoreV3());

    // Get the list of repositories.
    var repositories = sourceRepositoryProvider.GetRepositories();

    // Disposable source cache.
    using var sourceCacheContext = new SourceCacheContext();

    // You should use an actual logger here, this is a NuGet ILogger instance.
    var logger = new NullLogger();

    // My extension configuration:
    var extensions = new[]
    { 
        new ExtensionConfiguration
        {
            Package = "AutoStep.Web",
            PreRelease = true // Allow pre-release versions.
        }
    };
}

Next, let’s write a method to actually get the desired package identity to install. The GetPackageIdentity method goes through each repository, and either:

  • Picks the latest available version if no version range has been configured or,
  • If a version range has been specified, uses the provided NuGet VersionRange class to find the best match given the set of all versions.
private async Task<PackageIdentity> GetPackageIdentity(
          ExtensionConfiguration extConfig, SourceCacheContext cache, ILogger nugetLogger,
          IEnumerable<SourceRepository> repositories, CancellationToken cancelToken)
{
    // Go through each repository.
    // If a repository contains only pre-release packages (e.g. AutoStep CI), and 
    // the configuration doesn't permit pre-release versions,
    // the search will look at other ones (e.g. NuGet).
    foreach (var sourceRepository in repositories)
    {
        // Get a 'resource' from the repository.
        var findPackageResource = await sourceRepository.GetResourceAsync<FindPackageByIdResource>();

        // Get the list of all available versions of the package in the repository.
        var allVersions = await findPackageResource.GetAllVersionsAsync(extConfig.Package, cache, nugetLogger, cancelToken);

        NuGetVersion selected;

        // Have we specified a version range?
        if (extConfig.Version != null)
        {
            if (!VersionRange.TryParse(extConfig.Version, out var range))
            {
                throw new InvalidOperationException("Invalid version range provided.");
            }

            // Find the best package version match for the range.
            // Consider pre-release versions, but only if the extension is configured to use them.
            var bestVersion = range.FindBestMatch(allVersions.Where(v => extConfig.PreRelease || !v.IsPrerelease));

            selected = bestVersion;
        }
        else
        {
            // No version; choose the latest, allow pre-release if configured.
            selected = allVersions.LastOrDefault(v => v.IsPrerelease == extConfig.PreRelease);
        }

        if (selected is object)
        {
            return new PackageIdentity(extConfig.Package, selected);
        }
    }

    return null;
}

Let’s plug that code into our previous code, so we’re now getting the identity:

// ...

// My extension configuration:
var extensions = new[] { new ExtensionConfiguration
{
    Package = "AutoStep.Web",
    PreRelease = true // Allow pre-release versions.
}};

foreach (var ext in extensions)
{
    var packageIdentity = await GetPackageIdentity(ext, sourceCacheContext, logger, repositories, CancellationToken.None);

    if (packageIdentity is null)
    {
        throw new InvalidOperationException($"Cannot find package {ext.Package}.");
    }
}

With this we get a package identity of AutoStep.Web.1.0.0-develop.20 (the latest pre-release version at the time).

Get the List of Package Dependencies

This is where things get interesting. We need to get the complete set of all dependencies, across all the extensions, that we need to install in order to use the extension package.

First off, let’s look at an initial, very naive solution, which just does a straight-forward recurse through the entire dependency graph.

private async Task GetPackageDependencies(PackageIdentity package, SourceCacheContext cacheContext, 
                                          NuGetFramework framework, ILogger logger, 
                                          IEnumerable<SourceRepository> repositories,
                                          ISet<SourcePackageDependencyInfo> availablePackages, 
                                          CancellationToken cancelToken)
{
    // Don't recurse over a package we've already seen.
    if (availablePackages.Contains(package))
    {
        return;
    }

    foreach (var sourceRepository in repositories)
    {
        // Get the dependency info for the package.
        var dependencyInfoResource = await sourceRepository.GetResourceAsync<DependencyInfoResource>();
        var dependencyInfo = await dependencyInfoResource.ResolvePackage(
            package,
            framework,
            cacheContext,
            logger,
            cancelToken);

        // No info for the package in this repository.
        if (dependencyInfo == null)
        {
            continue;
        }

        // Add to the list of all packages.
        availablePackages.Add(dependencyInfo);

        // Recurse through each package.
        foreach (var dependency in dependencyInfo.Dependencies)
        {
            await GetPackageDependencies(
                new PackageIdentity(dependency.Id, dependency.VersionRange.MinVersion),
                cacheContext,
                framework,
                logger,
                repositories,
                availablePackages,
                cancelToken);
        }

        break;
    }
}

That does indeed create the complete graph of all libraries required by that extension, the problem is that it has 104 packages in it!

Long package list

I’ve got the AutoStep.Web package at the top there, but I’ve also got
System.Runtime, which I definitely don’t want.

All the extensions are going to reference the AutoStep.Extensions.Abstractions package (because that’s where we define our interfaces for extensions), but we don’t want to download it ourselves!

Besides the fact that we don’t need to download these shared packages, if we load in the AutoStep.Extensions.Abstractions assembly from the extension’s dependencies, it will not be compatible with the version referenced by the host process.

The actual requirement for our behaviour here is:

All packages provided by the host process should be excluded from the set of dependencies to install.

Filtering the Dependencies

At runtime, how do we know what the set of installed packages are for a .NET Core Application? Luckily, there happens to be an existing file containing this information, the {AssemblyName}.deps.json file that gets copied to your output directory.

You probably haven’t had to worry about it much, but if you look in your application’s output directory, you’ll find it.

It contains the complete package reference graph for your application, and looks a little something like this:

{
  "runtimeTarget": {
    "name": ".NETCoreApp,Version=v3.1",
    "signature": ""
  },
  "compilationOptions": {},
  "targets": {
    ".NETCoreApp,Version=v3.1": {
      "NugetConsole/1.0.0": {
        "dependencies": {
          "Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyModel": "3.1.3",
          "NuGet.Protocol": "5.5.1",
          "NuGet.Resolver": "5.5.1"
        },
        "runtime": {
          "NugetConsole.dll": {}
        }
      },
      "Microsoft.CSharp/4.0.1": {
        "dependencies": {
          "System.Collections": "4.3.0",
          "System.Diagnostics.Debug": "4.3.0",
          "System.Dynamic.Runtime": "4.3.0",
          "System.Globalization": "4.3.0",
          "System.Linq": "4.3.0",
          "System.Linq.Expressions": "4.3.0",
          "System.ObjectModel": "4.3.0",

// ...a lot more content...

Handily, we don’t have to parse this ourselves. If you add the Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyModel package to your project, you can directly access this content using DependencyContext.Default, which gives you a DependencyContext you can interrogate.

Let’s define a method that takes this DependencyContext and a PackageDependency, and checks whether it is provided by the host:

private bool DependencySuppliedByHost(DependencyContext hostDependencies, PackageDependency dep)
{
    // See if a runtime library with the same ID as the package is available in the host's runtime libraries.
    var runtimeLib = hostDependencies.RuntimeLibraries.FirstOrDefault(r => r.Name == dep.Id);

    if (runtimeLib is object)
    {
        // What version of the library is the host using?
        var parsedLibVersion = NuGetVersion.Parse(runtimeLib.Version);

        if (parsedLibVersion.IsPrerelease)
        {
            // Always use pre-release versions from the host, otherwise it becomes
            // a nightmare to develop across multiple active versions.
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            // Does the host version satisfy the version range of the requested package?
            // If so, we can provide it; otherwise, we cannot.
            return dep.VersionRange.Satisfies(parsedLibVersion);
        }
    }

    return false;
}

Then, let’s plug that in to our existing GetPackageDependencies method:

private async Task GetPackageDependencies(PackageIdentity package, SourceCacheContext cacheContext, NuGetFramework framework, 
                                          ILogger logger, IEnumerable<SourceRepository> repositories, DependencyContext hostDependencies,
                                          ISet<SourcePackageDependencyInfo> availablePackages, CancellationToken cancelToken)
{
    // Don't recurse over a package we've already seen.
    if (availablePackages.Contains(package))
    {
        return;
    }

    foreach (var sourceRepository in repositories)
    {
        // Get the dependency info for the package.
        var dependencyInfoResource = await sourceRepository.GetResourceAsync<DependencyInfoResource>();
        var dependencyInfo = await dependencyInfoResource.ResolvePackage(
            package,
            framework,
            cacheContext,
            logger,
            cancelToken);

        // No info for the package in this repository.
        if (dependencyInfo == null)
        {
            continue;
        }


        // Filter the dependency info.
        // Don't bring in any dependencies that are provided by the host.
        var actualSourceDep = new SourcePackageDependencyInfo(
            dependencyInfo.Id,
            dependencyInfo.Version,
            dependencyInfo.Dependencies.Where(dep => !DependencySuppliedByHost(hostDependencies, dep)),
            dependencyInfo.Listed,
            dependencyInfo.Source);

        availablePackages.Add(actualSourceDep);

        // Recurse through each package.
        foreach (var dependency in actualSourceDep.Dependencies)
        {
            await GetPackageDependencies(
                new PackageIdentity(dependency.Id, dependency.VersionRange.MinVersion),
                cacheContext,
                framework,
                logger,
                repositories,
                hostDependencies,
                availablePackages,
                cancelToken);
        }

        break;
    }
}

This cuts down on the set of packages significantly, but it’s still pulling down some runtime-provided packages I don’t want:

AutoStep.Web : 1.0.0-develop.20       // correct
Selenium.Chrome.WebDriver : 79.0.0    // correct
Selenium.WebDriver : 3.141.0          // correct
Newtonsoft.Json : 10.0.3              // correct
Microsoft.CSharp : 4.3.0              // Ah. This is a runtime package...
System.ComponentModel.TypeConverter : 4.3.0 
System.Collections.NonGeneric : 4.3.0       
System.Collections.Specialized : 4.3.0
System.ComponentModel : 4.3.0
System.ComponentModel.Primitives : 4.3.0
System.Runtime.Serialization.Primitives : 4.3.0
System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters : 4.3.0
System.Xml.XmlDocument : 4.3.0

So, something is still not right. What’s causing these packages to be present?

Well, simply put, my program doesn’t use System.ComponentModel, so it isn’t in the list of my dependencies. But it is provided by the host, because it’s part of the distributed .NET Runtime.

Ignoring Runtime-Provided Packages

We want to filter out runtime-provided packages completely, but how do we know which ones to exclude? We can’t just filter out any System.* packages, because there are a number of System.* packages that aren’t shipped with the runtime (e.g. System.Text.Json).

As far as I can tell, it’s more or less impossible to determine the full set at run time dynamically.

After some considerable searching however, I found a complete listing of all runtime-provided packages in an MSBuild task in the dotnet SDK, called PackageConflictOverrides, which tells the build system which packages don’t need to be restored! Yay!

This allowed me to define the following static lookup class (excerpt only). You can find a full version here.

/// <summary>
/// Contains a pre-determined list of NuGet packages that are provided by the run-time, and
/// therefore should not be restored from an extensions dependency list.
/// </summary>
internal static class RuntimeProvidedPackages
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Checks whether the set of known runtime packages contains the given package ID.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="packageId">The package ID.</param>
    /// <returns>True if the package is provided by the framework, otherwise false.</returns>
    public static bool IsPackageProvidedByRuntime(string packageId)
    {
        return ProvidedPackages.Contains(packageId);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// This list comes from the package overrides for the .NET SDK,
    /// at https://github.com/dotnet/sdk/blob/v3.1.201/src/Tasks/Common/targets/Microsoft.NET.DefaultPackageConflictOverrides.targets.
    /// If the executing binaries ever change to a newer version, this project must update as well, and refresh this list.
    /// </summary>
    private static readonly ISet<string> ProvidedPackages = new HashSet<string>
    {
        "Microsoft.CSharp",
        "Microsoft.Win32.Primitives",
        "Microsoft.Win32.Registry",
        "runtime.debian.8-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "runtime.fedora.23-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "runtime.fedora.24-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "runtime.opensuse.13.2-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "runtime.opensuse.42.1-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "runtime.osx.10.10-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.Apple",
        "runtime.osx.10.10-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "runtime.rhel.7-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "runtime.ubuntu.14.04-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "runtime.ubuntu.16.04-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "runtime.ubuntu.16.10-x64.runtime.native.System.Security.Cryptography.OpenSsl",
        "System.AppContext",
        "System.Buffers",
        "System.Collections",
        "System.Collections.Concurrent",
        // Removed a load for brevity....
        "System.Xml.ReaderWriter",
        "System.Xml.XDocument",
        "System.Xml.XmlDocument",
        "System.Xml.XmlSerializer",
        "System.Xml.XPath",
        "System.Xml.XPath.XDocument",
    };
}

Ok, so let’s update our DependencySuppliedByHost method to use this look-up:

private bool DependencySuppliedByHost(DependencyContext hostDependencies, PackageDependency dep)
{
    // Check our look-up list.
    if(RuntimeProvidedPackages.IsPackageProvidedByRuntime(dep.Id))
    {
        return true;
    }

    // See if a runtime library with the same ID as the package is available in the host's runtime libraries.
    var runtimeLib = hostDependencies.RuntimeLibraries.FirstOrDefault(r => r.Name == dep.Id);

    if (runtimeLib is object)
    {
        // What version of the library is the host using?
        var parsedLibVersion = NuGetVersion.Parse(runtimeLib.Version);

        if (parsedLibVersion.IsPrerelease)
        {
            // Always use pre-release versions from the host, otherwise it becomes
            // a nightmare to develop across multiple active versions.
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            // Does the host version satisfy the version range of the requested package?
            // If so, we can provide it; otherwise, we cannot.
            return dep.VersionRange.Satisfies(parsedLibVersion);
        }
    }

    return false;
}

Now, when we run our code, we get precisely the set of packages we want!

AutoStep.Web : 1.0.0-develop.20
Selenium.Chrome.WebDriver : 79.0.0
Selenium.WebDriver : 3.141.0
Newtonsoft.Json : 10.0.3

Downloading and Extracting

At the moment, our list of dependencies ‘might’ contain duplicates. For example,
two different extensions might reference two different versions of NewtonSoft.Json.
We need to pick one to install that will be compatible with both.

To do this, we need to use the supplied PackageResolver class to constrain the set of packages
to only the ones we want to actually download and install, in a new GetPackagesToInstall method:

private IEnumerable<SourcePackageDependencyInfo> GetPackagesToInstall(SourceRepositoryProvider sourceRepositoryProvider, 
                                                                      ILogger logger, IEnumerable<ExtensionConfiguration> extensions, 
                                                                      HashSet<SourcePackageDependencyInfo> allPackages)
{
    // Create a package resolver context.
    var resolverContext = new PackageResolverContext(
            DependencyBehavior.Lowest,
            extensions.Select(x => x.Package),
            Enumerable.Empty<string>(),
            Enumerable.Empty<PackageReference>(),
            Enumerable.Empty<PackageIdentity>(),
            allPackages,
            sourceRepositoryProvider.GetRepositories().Select(s => s.PackageSource),
            logger);

    var resolver = new PackageResolver();

    // Work out the actual set of packages to install.
    var packagesToInstall = resolver.Resolve(resolverContext, CancellationToken.None)
                                    .Select(p => allPackages.Single(x => PackageIdentityComparer.Default.Equals(x, p)));
    return packagesToInstall;
}

Once we have that list, we can pass it to another new method that actually downloads and extracts the packages for us, InstallPackages.

private async Task InstallPackages(SourceCacheContext sourceCacheContext, ILogger logger, 
                                    IEnumerable<SourcePackageDependencyInfo> packagesToInstall, string rootPackagesDirectory, 
                                    ISettings nugetSettings, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
{
    var packagePathResolver = new PackagePathResolver(rootPackagesDirectory, true);
    var packageExtractionContext = new PackageExtractionContext(
        PackageSaveMode.Defaultv3,
        XmlDocFileSaveMode.Skip,
        ClientPolicyContext.GetClientPolicy(nugetSettings, logger),
        logger);

    foreach (var package in packagesToInstall)
    {
        var downloadResource = await package.Source.GetResourceAsync<DownloadResource>(cancellationToken);

        // Download the package (might come from the shared package cache).
        var downloadResult = await downloadResource.GetDownloadResourceResultAsync(
            package,
            new PackageDownloadContext(sourceCacheContext),
            SettingsUtility.GetGlobalPackagesFolder(nugetSettings),
            logger,
            cancellationToken);

        // Extract the package into the target directory.
        await PackageExtractor.ExtractPackageAsync(
            downloadResult.PackageSource,
            downloadResult.PackageStream,
            packagePathResolver,
            packageExtractionContext,
            cancellationToken);
    }
}

Let’s go ahead and plug those extra methods into our main calling method:

public async Task LoadExtensions()
{
    // Define a source provider, with nuget, plus my own feed.
    var sourceProvider = new PackageSourceProvider(NullSettings.Instance, new[]
    {
        new PackageSource("https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json"),
        new PackageSource("https://f.feedz.io/autostep/ci/nuget/index.json")
    });

    // Establish the source repository provider; the available providers come from our custom settings.
    var sourceRepositoryProvider = new SourceRepositoryProvider(sourceProvider, Repository.Provider.GetCoreV3());

    // Get the list of repositories.
    var repositories = sourceRepositoryProvider.GetRepositories();

    // Disposable source cache.
    using var sourceCacheContext = new SourceCacheContext();

    // You should use an actual logger here, this is a NuGet ILogger instance.
    var logger = new NullLogger();

    // My extension configuration:
    var extensions = new[]
    {
        new ExtensionConfiguration
        {
            Package = "AutoStep.Web",
            PreRelease = true // Allow pre-release versions.
        }
    };

    // Replace this with a proper cancellation token.
    var cancellationToken = CancellationToken.None;

    // The framework we're using.
    var targetFramework = NuGetFramework.ParseFolder("netcoreapp3.1");
    var allPackages = new HashSet<SourcePackageDependencyInfo>();

    var dependencyContext = DependencyContext.Default;

    foreach (var ext in extensions)
    {
        var packageIdentity = await GetPackageIdentity(ext, sourceCacheContext, logger, repositories, cancellationToken);

        if (packageIdentity is null)
        {
            throw new InvalidOperationException($"Cannot find package {ext.Package}.");
        }

        await GetPackageDependencies(packageIdentity, sourceCacheContext, targetFramework, logger, repositories, dependencyContext, allPackages, cancellationToken);
    }

    var packagesToInstall = GetPackagesToInstall(sourceRepositoryProvider, logger, extensions, allPackages);

    // Where do we want to install our packages?
    // For now we'll pop them in the .extensions folder.
    var packageDirectory = Path.Combine(Environment.CurrentDirectory, ".extensions");
    var nugetSettings = Settings.LoadDefaultSettings(packageDirectory);

    await InstallPackages(sourceCacheContext, logger, packagesToInstall, packageDirectory, nugetSettings, cancellationToken);
}

With all these changes, here’s what the ./extensions folder looks like when we run this:

> ls ./extensions
AutoStep.Web.1.0.0-develop.20
Newtonsoft.Json.10.0.3
Selenium.Chrome.WebDriver.79.0.0
Selenium.WebDriver.3.141.0

All the packages we need are now on disk!


Wrapping Up

At the end of this post, we now have a mechanism for loading packages and a filtered set of dependencies from NuGet.

In the next post, we will load those packages into a custom AssemblyLoadContext and use them in our application.

You can find the complete set of code from this post in this gist.

The ‘production’ code this fed into is in the GitHub repository for AutoStep.Extensions, which provides the NuGet package used to load extensions into our VS Code Language Server and our commmand-line runner.

Categories
Uncategorized

Blazor WebAssembly, Monaco and Antlr – Building the AutoStep Editor as a Blazor App

I’m writing this post to show people the possibilities of WebAssembly and Blazor, using an open-source project I’m working on right now.

In this post we’ll cover:

  • Integrating the Monaco Code Editor with Blazor (and Razor Component Libraries in general)
  • Blazor to TypeScript Interop Tips
  • Manual Tokenisation of Code in Monaco (by a .NET Assembly!), including a quick look at performance.
  • Feeding Compilation Results from .NET to Monaco.

With the tools available to me, I can do real-time syntax highlighting and compilation of AutoStep tests in-browser, using WebAssembly to run my .NET library that does a lot of the heavy lifting, and the Monaco editor to provide the actual text editor behaviour. You can do some really cool stuff when you combine the power of .NET with a web-based user interface.

You can find all the code for the AutoStep Editor I’m going to be referencing in the GitHub repository, https://github.com/autostep/AutoStep.Editor.

Before we dive in, there’s a bit of background to cover.

Background

To give a little context, I’m currently building the AutoStep Toolkit.

AutoStep is a new compiler, linker and runner for BDD (Business Driven Development) tests, based on Gherkin syntax, but with some extra language features.

You can find the core library that provides this functionality at https://github.com/autostep/AutoStep.

I need to build a User Interface for writing AutoStep tests that is targeted at non-developer users, so using Visual Studio or VS Code as an editor doesn’t give the user experience I want.

I’ve chosen Blazor because:

  • I can load my netstandard AutoStep package directly into WebAssembly, so I don’t need a server component to run compilation.
  • I prefer to keep the amount of Javascript I have to write to a minimum.
  • I can share types between the front-end and the AutoStep project system.

Right now, I’m just building the basic editor control, before we build the rest of the user interface around it.

Below you can see a little demo GIF of how the editor control looks right now. You can see real-time syntax highlighting and test compilation as you type, with syntax errors being presented by the editor.

The rest of this post is basically going to go over how it works, and some of the WebAssembly magic that gives us this behaviour.

Integrating Monaco

Monaco is the VS Code editor, released as a standalone package that anyone can use; it’s really powerful, and gives us loads of basic text editor behaviour out of the box, even before we add the syntax highlighting and IDE-type functionality.

The first task was to get Monaco working as a Blazor component. I knew that I would need at least some Javascript code to function as the Interop layer, so rather than put that code in my main Blazor Client project (AutoStep.Editor.Client), I decided to put all the Monaco behaviour in a new Razor Component Library (AutoStep.Monaco), which I can use from my main project.

That way, I can keep the node_modules out of my main application project, nice and self-contained in it’s own folder.

I feel like it’s a pretty pleasing pattern to keep any JS interop out of the main Blazor app, in separated components. That way, the main application stays clean and only has to worry about components and general app state.

It also makes each component easier to test on its own.

I’m going to use TypeScript for my interop code, partly because I just like being in a typed world, but also because I can then consume the type definitions exposed by Monaco.

The only actual npm package I need to install and redistribute is monaco-editor, but I also need Webpack to compile my TypeScript and bundle everything together, plus the various Webpack plugins.

You can check the full package.json file for the set of required packages. There’s only 10 packages listed, but even these dependencies result in 5483 installed packages!

To configure Webpack correctly, I used the Monaco Webpack Plugin, which just simplifies getting Monaco building under Webpack. If you follow the instructions in their README, you can’t really go wrong.

Static Files in Razor Component Libraries

One nice feature of Blazor is that if you put your static files in the wwwroot folder of a Razor Component project, when you reference your Component project from your main Blazor App project, you can reference those static resources in your HTML, just by using the special _content path:

<!-- Use the name of the referenced project (or package) -->
<script src="_content/AutoStep.Monaco/app.bundle.js"></script>

For this to work with the Webpack build, I had to do two things:

  • Configure Webpack to output my bundles to the wwwroot folder
  • Configure Monaco to load its dependencies from the _content/AutoStep.Monaco path

The first part was straight-forward, you just have to change the Webpack output path:

//...
output: {
  globalObject: "self",
  filename: "[name].bundle.js",
  path: path.resolve(__dirname, 'wwwroot')
},
//...

For the Monaco configuration, the _content path has to be configured in three different locations. The first two are in the Webpack configuration file:

module: {
    rules: [
        // Other rules here...
        {
            test: /\.ttf$/,
            loader: 'file-loader',
            options:
            {
                publicPath: "/_content/AutoStep.Monaco"
            }
        }]
},
plugins: [
    new MonacoWebpackPlugin({publicPath: '/_content/AutoStep.Monaco/', languages: []})
]

I’ve also told the MonacoWebpackPlugin to not include any built-in languages in the output, because I’m not going to need them.

Finally, in the ‘entry point’ of your Javascript/Typescript (my MonacoInterop.ts), you need to tell Monaco where to load its web workers from:

// @ts-ignore
self.MonacoEnvironment = {
    getWorkerUrl: function (moduleId, label) {
        return "./_content/Autostep.Monaco/editor.worker.bundle.js";
    }
};

Once all the above is done, I can just include the app bundle in my Blazor Client index.html file, and it will load in all the Monaco dependencies:

<body>
    <app class="d-flex">Loading...</app>

    <div id="blazor-error-ui">
        An unhandled error has occurred.
        <a href="" class="reload">Reload</a>
        <a class="dismiss">đź—™</a>
    </div>
    <script src="_content/AutoStep.Monaco/app.bundle.js"></script>
    <script src="_content/Blazor.Fluxor/index.js"></script>
    <script src="_framework/blazor.webassembly.js"></script>
</body>

Blazor JS Interop & TypeScript

Once I’ve got the Monaco code loading in, I now need to use it. I’ll just go over a few tips for using TypeScript for doing Blazor JS Interop.

Interop Classes

The first tip is to define a sensible boundary between your .NET code and your TypeScript. First up, let’s define an entry-point TypeScript class attached to ‘window’:

class MyInterop 
{
    doSomething() 
    {
    }

    getSomething() : string
    {
    }
}

window['MyInterop'] = new MyInterop();

In your C# code, create an internal class of the same name, and encapsulate those methods (I’ve also defined wrappers for the IJSRuntime methods that automatically prefix the name of my TypeScript class):

internal class MyInterop
{
    private readonly IJSRuntime jsInterop;
    private readonly ILogger logger;

    private const string InteropPrefix = "MyInterop.";

    public MyInterop(IJSRuntime runtime, ILogger<MyInterop> logger)
    {
        this.jsInterop = jsInterop;
        this.logger = logger;
    }

    public async ValueTask DoSomething()
    {
        await InvokeVoidAsync("doSomething");
    }

    public async ValueTask<string> GetSomething()
    {
        return await InvokeAsync<string>("getSomething");
    }

    private ValueTask<TResult> InvokeAsync<TResult>(string methodName, params object[] args)
    {
        var fullname = InteropPrefix + methodName;
        logger.LogTrace("InvokeAsync: {0}", fullname);
        return jsRuntime.InvokeAsync<TResult>(fullname, args);
    }

    private ValueTask InvokeVoidAsync(string methodName, params object[] args)
    {
        var fullname = InteropPrefix + methodName;
        logger.LogTrace("InvokeVoidAsync: {0}", fullname);
        return jsRuntime.InvokeVoidAsync(fullname, args);
    }
}

Log your JS Interop calls! This will help a lot with debugging later.

In my AutoStep.Monaco library, I’ve got precisely this set-up (albeit with more methods), with the TypeScript in MonacoInterop.ts, and the C# in MonacoInterop.cs.

I added an extension method to my Razor Component Library that adds my MonacoInterop class to the Service Collection; I can call this during startup in my Blazor App.

public static class ServiceCollectionExtensions
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Add services for the Monaco component.
    /// </summary>
    public static IServiceCollection AddMonaco(this IServiceCollection services)
    {
        services.AddSingleton<MonacoInterop>();
        return services;
    }
}

Then I can inject the MonacoInterop class into any of my Razor Components inside my AutoStep.Monaco project, and invoke my TypeScript methods that way.

Calling Back into .NET Code from TypeScript

When an ‘event’ of some form happens inside the Monaco Editor, I need to invoke a method in my .NET Code.

So far, I’ve found the following pattern to be pretty useful.

First up, add a method to your Interop class to register an event handler.

public async ValueTask RegisterLanguageTokenizer(string languageId, string extension, ILanguageTokenizer tokenizer)
{
    // Wrap the 'tokenizer' in a DotNetObjectReference.
    await InvokeVoidAsync("registerLanguageTokenizer", languageId, extension, DotNetObjectReference.Create(tokenizer));
}

The DotNetObjectReference passes the object to JS in a way that tracks the original object.

In the implementation of ILanguageTokenizer, I have a couple of methods, all marked as [JSInvokable], which indicates they can be called from Javascript.

In your TypeScript Interop class, add the registerLanguageTokenizer method:

registerLanguageTokenizer(languageId: string, extension: string, blazorCallback: IBlazorInteropObject)
{
  // Store the blazorCallback object somewhere to call it in an event handler.
}

The IBlazorInteropObject is something I’ve added; it’s a simple TypeScript interface that defines the useful methods available on the object wrapper Blazor actually passes as that parameter.

/**
 * Interface that defines the useful methods on the .NET object reference passed by Blazor.
 */
export interface IBlazorInteropObject {
    invokeMethodAsync<T>(methodName: string, ...args: any[]): Promise<T>;
    invokeMethod<T>(methodName: string, ...args: any[]): T;

}

I can then use this IBlazorInteropObject to invoke my .NET code.

export class AutoStepTokenProvider implements languages.TokensProvider {
    private callback: IBlazorInteropObject;

    constructor(blazorCallback: IBlazorInteropObject) {
        this.callback = blazorCallback;
    }

    getInitialState(): languages.IState {
        return new AutoStepTokenState(this.callback.invokeMethod<number>("GetInitialState"));
    }

    tokenize(line: string, state: languages.IState): languages.ILineTokens {

        if (state instanceof AutoStepTokenState)
        {
            var result: any = this.callback.invokeMethod("Tokenize", line, state.tokenState);

            return { tokens: result.tokens, endState: new AutoStepTokenState(result.endState) };
        }

        throw "Invalid start state";
    }
}

Line Tokenisation & Syntax Highlighting

For people unfamiliar with it, syntax highlighting code usually involves tokenising a given line of code, which uses a lexer to go through a block of text and produce a set of tokens that give the position of named language constructs, like keywords, variables, strings, etc. The editor then knows which colours to apply to different parts of a line of text.

Monaco allows you to define a ‘grammar’ for a language you want to apply syntax highlighting to., using their Monarch system for describing languages using JSON. Monaco then does the tokenising for you, based on that configuration.

The problem with using Monarch in my situation is that the tokenisation would not be context-sensitive. By that, I mean that the tokenisation can only work off the content of the file it is highlighting, and cannot base the set of returned tokens on anything else.

In my situation, I want to highlight the Given/When/Then lines of a test a different colour if there is no backing step to call; in addition, I only know which part of a step is an argument (in red) based on which step it binds against.

This contextual information cannot be obtained just through using a declarative grammar; I need a more manual approach.

Luckily, Monaco lets you define a manual token provider, using the setTokensProvider method. By implementing the Monaco-defined interface languages.TokensProvider, we can run our own custom code when Monaco needs to re-tokenise a line.

I showed you the TypeScript implementation of that interface earlier, when we were looking at how to call a .NET object from Javascript. All that the AutoStepTokenProvider TypeScript class does is call into an object in our Blazor .NET code, the AutoStepTokenizer, to handle the actual tokenisation.

The JS call for tokenisation must be a synchronous call because the Monaco tokenisation methods don’t allow me to return a promise (although it does execute in a background web worker).

Typically you’d want to make asynchronous calls into your .NET code where possible, but we can’t do that here.

To achieve the required tokenisation performance, I added Line Tokenisation support in the core AutoStep library, which is effectively a special-cased fast path through the normal compilation and linking process.

[JSInvokable]
public TokenizeResult Tokenize(string line, int state)
{
    try
    {
        var castState = (LineTokeniserState)state;

        logger.LogTrace("Tokenise Start in State {0}: {1}", castState, line);

        // Use the project compiler (in the core library) to tokenise.
        var tokenised = projectCompiler.TokeniseLine(line, castState);
        
        // Create the set of models that Monaco expects
        var tokenArray = tokenised.Tokens.Select(x => 
            new LanguageToken(x.StartPosition, TokenScopes.GetScopeText(x.Category, x.SubCategory)));

        return new TokenizeResult((int)tokenised.EndState, tokenArray);
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
        logger.LogError(ex, "Tokenisation Error");
    }

    return new TokenizeResult(0, Array.Empty<LanguageToken>());
}

Once the AutoStep Core library returns the set of tokens for a line, I need to convert those tokens into TextMate scopes. Scopes are effectively names for the different tokens you can get, and Monaco can style each scope differently.

I put the scope mapping configuration in a static array in a TokenScopes class:

static TokenScopes()
{
    // Set up our scopes.
    InitScope("comment.line.number-sign", LineTokenCategory.Comment);
    InitScope("keyword", LineTokenCategory.StepTypeKeyword);
    InitScope("keyword", LineTokenCategory.EntryMarker);
    InitScope("entity.name", LineTokenCategory.EntityName);
    InitScope("entity.name.section", LineTokenCategory.EntityName, LineTokenSubCategory.Scenario);
    InitScope("entity.name.section", LineTokenCategory.EntityName, LineTokenSubCategory.ScenarioOutline);
    InitScope("entity.name.type", LineTokenCategory.EntityName, LineTokenSubCategory.Feature);
    InitScope("entity.annotation", LineTokenCategory.Annotation);
    InitScope("entity.annotation.opt", LineTokenCategory.Annotation, LineTokenSubCategory.Option);
    InitScope("entity.annotation.tag", LineTokenCategory.Annotation, LineTokenSubCategory.Tag);
    InitScope("string", LineTokenCategory.BoundArgument);
    InitScope("string.variable", LineTokenCategory.BoundArgument, LineTokenSubCategory.ArgumentVariable);
    InitScope("variable", LineTokenCategory.Variable);
    InitScope("markup.italic", LineTokenCategory.Text, LineTokenSubCategory.Description);
    InitScope("text", LineTokenCategory.Text);
    InitScope("entity.step.text", LineTokenCategory.StepText);
    InitScope("entity.step.text.bound", LineTokenCategory.StepText, LineTokenSubCategory.Bound);
    InitScope("entity.step.text.unbound", LineTokenCategory.StepText, LineTokenSubCategory.Unbound);
    InitScope("table.separator", LineTokenCategory.TableBorder);
}

Finally, I define my own theme for Monaco so I can style the scopes:

editor.defineTheme('autostep', {
    base: 'vs',
    inherit: true,
    rules: [
        { token: "markup.italic", fontStyle: 'italic' },
        { token: "string.variable", fontStyle: 'italic' },
        { token: "variable", fontStyle: 'italic' },
        { token: "entity.step.text.unbound", foreground: '#969696' },
        { token: "entity.annotation.opt", foreground: '#fbad38' },
        { token: "entity.annotation.tag", foreground: '#fbad38' }
    ],
    colors: {} 
});

editor.setTheme('autostep');

Performance

It’s important to measure performance of code like this, especially because it needs to update the display in real-time as the user types.

If you run the profiler in Chrome DevTools, you can see the activity happening on the background thread that calls into the WebAssembly system, and get an idea of how long your code is spending in the .NET world.

I’ve highlighted which bits are doing what in the call stack, along with some timings.

It’s pretty quick! Even considering the hops into the WebAssembly space and back, tokenisation generally ranges between 3 and 6ms.

A lot of that performance, though, is down to the awesome parser engine we use in the AutoStep Core library, Antlr.

Antlr Overview

Antlr is a parser generator. It can take a grammar describing your language, and output a parser that will turn a block of text into a structured parse tree.

Considering the complexity of the task it has to perform, it produces really efficient parsers.

The Antlr generator is written in Java, but there are runtimes for the parser for a number of platforms, including .NET.

I’m not going to go into loads of depth on how Antlr works, because it is a really broad topic, but I can strongly recommend the excellent book by Terrence Parr, which is a great intro and reference for Antlr.

The full lexer grammar and parser grammar for the AutoStep language can be found in the AutoStep repo.

Line Tokenising Parser

The full parse tree for AutoStep works over the entire file, validating positions and order in a detailed way. That won’t work for tokenising a single line at a time (and risks being too slow), so I added a simpler line-by-line entry-point into the parser (AutoStepLineTokeniser) that helps me tokenise just for this syntax highlighting purpose:

You might ask, why do I even need a parser for this? Surely a lexer is all I need to generate the tokens?

I generate a parse tree for each line because:

  • I want the parser to tell me what ‘alternative’ of the possible line structures I’m looking at.
  • The set of tokens that I report for syntax highlighting are based on similar structures to the full compile, which expect at least a partial parse tree.

Once I have the Antlr parse tree for the single line I can built a set of line tokens with the appropriate categorisations for each token.

If the line is a Step Reference (Given/When/Then), I ask the AutoStep linker if the Step Reference can be bound to an existing step.

The high-level pseudo-code for this whole process looks a little like this:

var parseTree = GetAntlrParseTree(lineText);

if(parseTree is StepReference stepRef)
{
    if(linker.TryBindStep(stepRef))
    {
        return GetTokensForBoundStep(stepRef);
    }

    return GetTokensForUnboundStep(stepRef);
}

return GetRegularTokens(parseTree);

Once the tokens are handed back to the Blazor App, they get turned into scopes and handed off to Monaco for rendering.

Compilation, Linking, and Message Markers

Ok, so we’ve got line tokenisation, and syntax highlighting. Now I want to show underline markers when something is wrong.

Monaco makes this an absolute breeze, with a concept called ‘markers’, which are for precisely this purpose, but let’s take a look at how this is arranged. First, let’s look at the line in the Razor file that renders our custom MonacoEditor component:

<MonacoEditor Uri="@currentFile.FileUri.ToString()" 
              Value="@currentFile.Source.OriginalBody" 
              ModelMarkers="currentMarkers" 
              OnModelChanged="m => CodeChangedHandler(m.CurrentValue)" 
              LanguageId="autostep" />

When the content of the Monaco Editor changes, after a short delay (so we don’t recompile after every keystroke), our CodeChangedHandler will be invoked, with the new content of the editor as an argument.

When currentMarkers changes, the MonacoEditor component will pass those new markers down to the Monaco Javascript.

When the code for the file is changed, we ask the Project Compiler to compile and link the entire project. Only those files that have changed actually get compiled.

When that has completed, we have a set of Compilation & Linker Messages for the file, for example:

(8,17,8,25): Error ASC00011: Not expecting an Examples block here; did you mean to define 'My Scenario' as a Scenario Outline rather than a Scenario?
(3,1): Error ASC20002: There are multiple matching step definitions that match this step.

To use those in Monaco, we just need to convert them into MarkerData structures, i.e. the format Monaco understands. I’ve defined a MarkerData class in C# that serialises directly to the equivalent Javascript structure.

private static MarkerData GetMarkerDataFromMessage(CompilerMessage msg)
{
    var severity = msg.Level switch
    {
        CompilerMessageLevel.Error => MarkerSeverity.Error,
        CompilerMessageLevel.Warning => MarkerSeverity.Warning,
        _ => MarkerSeverity.Info
    };

    var endPosition = msg.EndColumn;

    if(endPosition is null)
    {
        endPosition = msg.StartColumn;
    }
    else
    {
        // Expand message end to the location after the token
        endPosition++;
    }

    return new MarkerData($"ASC{(int)msg.Code:D5}", msg.Message, severity, msg.StartColumn, msg.StartLineNo, endPosition.Value, msg.EndLineNo ?? msg.StartLineNo);
}

Once I have the correct data structures, I can just pass those over to my TypeScript class using regular JS Interop, and call editor.setModelMarkers to update the set.

/**
    * Set the model markers for a text model.
    * @param textModelUri The URI of the text model.
    * @param owner The owner of the markers.
    * @param markers The full set of new markers for the model.
    */
setModelMarkers(textModelUri: string, owner: string, markers: editor.IMarkerData[])
{
    var modelCtxt = this.models[textModelUri];

    if (!modelCtxt) {
        throw "Specified model not created.";
    }

    editor.setModelMarkers(modelCtxt.textModel, owner, markers);
}

Hey, presto! Compilation errors, syntax highlighting, all in the browser with no server work beyond static file hosting!

What’s Next

Features going into the AutoStep Editor over the next few months include:

  • An actual User Interface, rather than just an Editor!
  • Intellisense, and automatic step suggestions as you type.
  • Hover documentation, showing step documentation if you hover over one.
  • Go-To-Reference for steps, that navigates to the Step Definition for a step if you defined a step in an AutoStep file.

Keep an eye on the repository if you want to see how it goes, there may well be another couple of follow-up posts as we make progress.